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Monday, March 21, 2011

History of Andhra Pradesh - ఆంధ్ర ప్రదేశ్ చరిత్ర

Andhra Pradesh (AP) is the fifth largest State in the Indian Union having an area of 275,909 sq. kms and a population of about 75-80 million. AP is bound in the North by Orissa and Madhya Pradesh States, in the East by bay of Bengal with a 960 km long coast line, in the South by Tamilnadu State, and in the West by Karnataka and Maharashtra. AP forms a major link between the north and the south of India.

Andhra Pradesh consists of three distinct regions, namely, Andhra, Rayalaseema and Telangana. Andhra and Rayalaseema were part of Madras province of the British empire. For approximately 400 years, Telangana was part of Hyderabad State, an independent kingdom ruled by Muslim Qutub Shahi and Nizam dynasties. Thanks to the sacrifice of Sriramulu Potti, Andhra and Rayalaseema were separated from Madras State in 1953. Andhra state (Andhra and Rayalaseema) was the first state that was formed purely on linguistic nationality, like many European states. Later Andhra merged with Telangana in 1956, based on their linguistic and national affinity, to form the present state of Andhra Pradesh, Hyderabad as the capital city. However, this has resulted in two major agitations: Jai Telangana in 1969 and Jai Andhra 1972, both for separate states.

The Krishna and the Godavari are the major river systems in AP. The Godavari is the largest and the broadest river of South India.

States like Tamil Nadu, Karnataka, Maharashtra, West Bengal etc. have produced and published comprehensive histories and cultures of their respective people. Several minor and major European nationalities have done the same. For some strange reason, comprehensive histories of Andhra, Rayalaseema and Telangana peoples and their cultures have remained a dream, long cherished but unfulfilled.


Andhra is also known as Coasta, meaning coastal region. Andhra constitutes: Srikakulam, Vijayanagaram, Visakhapatnam, East Godavari, West Godavari, Krishna, Guntur, Prakasham, and Nellore districts. Andhra is the most advanced region in Andhra Pradesh, both economically and educationally.

District - Population- Area (sq. km) - Capital

Srikakulam - 2,321,130 -5837- Srikakulam
Vijayanagaram -2,110,943 -6,539 - Vijayanagaram
Visakhapatnam- 3,285,092- 11,161- Visakhapatnam
East Godavari -4,541,220 -10,807- Kakinada
West Godavari- 3,517,568- 7,742 - Eluru
Krishna - 3,698,833- 8,727- Machilipatnam
Guntur- 4,106,999- 11,391- Guntur
Prakasam - 2,759,166- 17,626- Ongolu
Nellore- 2,392,260- 13,076 -Nellore

Andhra 28,733,211 -92,906


Rayalaseema constitutes: Kurnool, Kadapa, Anantapuram, Chittooru.

District - Population- Area (sq. km) -Capital
Kurnool- 2,973,024 - 17,658 - Kurnool
Anatapuram- 3,183,814 -19,130 - Anatapuram
Kadapa- 2,267,769- 15,359- Kadapa
Chittore - 3,261,120 - 15,152 - Chittore

Rayalaseema- 11,685,727 - 67,299


Telangana forms the core of the Satavahana Dynasty (221BC-218 AD) and in the recent history, it formed the core of the Golconda State and Hyderabad State, ruled by alien Muslim rules, Qutub Shahi Dynasty (1520-1687) and Nizam Dynasty (1724-1948), until she joined the democratic republic of Indian Union in 1948 ending hundreds of years of autocratic rule. Despite fifty-years of democratic rule, the Telangana region remains one of the most backward regions in the entire Indian Union and remains the most backward province in the state of Andhra Pradesh. Telangana constitutes 10 districts: Adilabad, Karimnagar, Nizamabad, Medak, Warangal, Khammam, Hyderabad, Rangareddy, Nalgonda, and Mahaboobnagar districts.

District Population Area ( Capital

Adilabad - 2,082,479 -16,105- Adilabad
Karimnagar- 3,037,486 - 11,823 -Karimnagar
Warangal - 2,818,832 - 12,844 -Warangal
Khammam- 2,215,809- 16,029- Khammam
Nalgonda- 2,852,092- 14,240 -Nalgonda
Mahaboobnagar- 3,077,050 -18,432- Mahaboobnagar
Medak - 2,269,800- 9,699- Sangareddy
Nizamabad- 2,037662- 7956 - Nizamabad
Hyderabad - 3,145,940 - 217 - Hyderabad
Rangareddy - 2,551,966 - 7,493 -Hyderabad

Telangana -23,873,307 - 98811

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